Recurrent Glioblastoma:

A Comprehensive Guide

For Cancer Patients

Recurrent Glioblastoma:

A Comprehensive Guide

For Cancer Patients



A Comprehensive

Guide For

Cancer Patients

What is Recurrent Glioblastoma?

Recurrent glioblastoma, sometimes referred to as glioblastoma multiforme or simply GBM, stands as one of the most aggressive brain tumors known to medical science. It is a malignancy that relentlessly invades the brain, presenting a formidable challenge for both patients and healthcare providers. Sometimes, an initial glioblastoma returns to the original tumor site or elsewhere on the brain or spinal cord. This phenomenon is known as recurrent glioblastoma, and it adds an additional layer of complexity an already formidable adversary.

Developing effective strategies to prevent or treat recurrent glioblastoma remains a significant challenge in the field of neuro-oncology, and ongoing research seeks to unravel these complexities and improve outcomes for patients. In this guide, we will delve into the intricacies of recurrent glioblastoma, exploring its diagnosis, treatment options, and evolving outlook.

Why does Recurrent Glioblastoma Develop?


  • “Recurrent glioblastoma” represents the resurgence of a tumor that was once believed to be under control, and it is a complex process driven by a combination of factors, including the invasive nature of GBM, cellular heterogeneity, resistance to treatment, genetic and molecular changes, the unique brain microenvironment, and the presence of the blood-brain barrier.
  • These brain tumors are highly adaptable and resistant to treatment, enabling them to survive and lead to recurrence.

How Common is Recurrent Glioblastoma?


  • Unfortunately, glioblastoma recurrence is fairly frequent, affecting a significant proportion of patients who undergo initial treatment. Research findings suggest that roughly 90% of individuals diagnosed with glioblastoma will encounter tumor regrowth within a span of two years following their initial diagnosis.
  • The high recurrence rate can be attributed primarily to glioblastoma’s aggressive characteristics and its capacity to infiltrate the adjacent brain tissue.

What are the Symptoms of Recurrent Glioblastoma?


  • The symptoms of recurrent glioblastoma can be similar to those experienced during the initial diagnosis of the tumor and may include: headaches, seizures, cognitive decline, motor deficits, nausea/vomiting, numbness, tingling and/or fatigue.

The Challenges in Diagnosis

Diagnosing recurrent glioblastoma poses several challenges due to the complexity of the disease and the potential overlap of symptoms with other conditions. These challenges can delay diagnosis and impact the choice of treatment and may include symptom overlap with other neurological conditions, radiological ambiguity, effects of previous treatments, variability in tumor growth, time of recurrence, molecular changes and/or patient variability. In addition, recurrent glioblastoma is highly aggressive and able to quickly grow and evolve.

How is Recurrent Glioblastoma Diagnosed?


Recurrent Glioblastoma is often diagnosed using a mix of techniques and that may include:

Clinical Presentation:

Recurrent glioblastoma often presents with a familiar constellation of symptoms that mirror the initial diagnosis. Patients may experience headaches, seizures, cognitive decline, personality changes, and motor deficits. These symptoms can be subtle initially but tend to worsen over time. Recent advances in molecular profiling have enabled the identification of specific genetic and molecular markers in glioblastoma. This information can help guide treatment decisions and predict the tumor’s behavior.

Imaging Studies:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is often the initial imaging modality used to detect glioblastoma. It provides detailed images of the brain and helps identify the tumor’s location, size, and potential involvement with critical brain structures. Computed Tomography (CT) Scans may also be used to visualize the brain and assess the extent of the tumor.

Histopathological Examination:

In some cases, a repeat biopsy or resection is necessary to definitively confirm recurrent glioblastoma. To confirm the diagnosis and classify the glioblastoma, a biopsy is usually performed where a sample of the tumor tissue is removed during a surgical procedure and examined under a microscope by a pathologist.

Treatment Options for Recurrent Glioblastoma


The management of recurrent glioblastoma is a complex, multidisciplinary endeavor. It involves a combination of conventional and innovative approaches aimed at extending survival, improving quality of life, and potentially achieving long-term disease control. Current approved therapies span medical devices (carmustine wafer, tumor-treating fields), drugs (bevacizumab, carmustine, lomustine, and other modalities (surgical resection, re-irradiation, laser interstitial therapy).  The National Comphrehensive Cancer Network guideslines for Central Nervous System Cancers recognize the extreme medical need for recurrent glioblastoma patient treatment options by recommending entering a clinical trial – confirming that the efficacy of current approved therapies is sub-optimal.

Surgical Tumor Resection

This approach aims to relieve mass effect, reduce symptoms, and obtain tissue for molecular analysis. However, the efficacy of re-resection in prolonging survival remains limited.

Radiation Therapy

Re-irradiation is often used when the recurrent tumor is localized and the patient has not previously received maximal radiation therapy. This approach can provide palliation and the potential for modest survival benefits.



Several chemotherapy agents have been explored for recurrent glioblastoma. In clinical trials, FDA-approved lomustine alone has been increasingly used as a control arm, assigning this drug a standard-of-care position in the setting of recurrent glioblastoma.


Targeted Therapy

FDA-approved drugs like bevacizumab, which inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have shown promise in reducing tumor-related edema and stabilizing disease progression in some patients.


Immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving field with ongoing clinical trials investigating the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors, tumor vaccines, and adoptive cell therapies in recurrent glioblastoma.


Clinical Trials

Investigational treatments may include novel drugs, gene therapies, or innovative combinations of existing therapies. Clinical trials offer the hope of accessing cutting-edge treatments not yet widely available.


The outlook for patients with recurrent glioblastoma remains challenging due to the aggressive nature of the disease and limited treatment options. However, there is ongoing research and innovation that brings hope for improved outcomes in the future. Patients diagnosed with recurrent glioblastoma should consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals who can tailor treatment approaches to their specific needs. Participation in clinical trials and ongoing research efforts is essential for pushing the boundaries of what is possible in combating this devastating disease.

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with Recurrent Glioblastoma, it’s crucial to discuss all treatment options with your healthcare provider. If you have additional questions, you can contact our team. 

Financial Resources

Glenn Garcelon Foundation

The Glenn Garcelon Foundation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization which exists to improve the quality of life of brain tumor survivors, caregivers and their families by providing emotional and financial support.


Phone: 503-969-7651

Vital Options International

Apply for the Selma Schimmel Vital Grant to assist with financial hardship due to diagnosis.


Phone: 1-800-518-2354


Florida Cancer Specialists Foundation

Open to FL patients on active treatment. They can assist with household expenses, possibly up to $2,000.


Phone: 941-677-7181

Kim’s Hope

Kim’s Hope distributes funds directly to families facing a diagnosis of glioblastoma to allow for the best possible care for the patient, and the best environment of care for the patient and caregiver. If you’re eligible, we can provide a grant to cover non-medical, everyday living expenses, such as mortgage payments, utilities, groceries, and transportation costs.


Phone: 503-577-3366

Family Reach

Financial assistance to individuals undergoing cancer treatment. A child or young adult must be impacted. They can provide assistance to families with a child facing cancer (aged 0 to 17), young adult patients (aged 18 to 30) with or without children in the home, and adult patients (31 and older) who have children aged 18 and under.


Phone: 973-394-1411

WINKS- Empathy in Action

The Empathy in Action Grant Program provides financial assistance to brain tumor patients and caregivers with demonstrated financial need in accordance with WINKS’ charitable purposes. Patients and caregivers whose annual household income is less than 300% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines are eligible for assistance under this program.


Partners in Care

Grant to assist with temporary lodging, transportation, food. Must be within 6 months of a cancer diagnosis. Must reside or receive treatment in Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Washington, and West Virginia.


Phone: 888-850-1622

Bringing Hope Home

Financial assistance with one time grant for household expenses. Must live in specific areas in PA, NJ, NY and Maryland. See website for detailed info on locations. For patients on active cancer treatment.


Phone: 484-580-8395

Allyson Whitney Foundation

Our ‘Life Interrupted Grants’™ cover a wide range of needs, including (but not limited to): current and residual medical bills, rent, utilities, car and health insurance premiums, IVF treatments, integrative therapies, travel expenses, and medical hair pieces. If you think that you might be an ideal candidate for the grant, contact your patient navigator to request an application during our open request period.



Mission 4 Maureen

Help provide financial assistance to brain tumor patients, burdened by the staggering cost of treatment.


Phone: 440-840-6497

leptomeningeal metastases doctors

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